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Global internet protocol (IP) traffic will grow 3-fold from 2015 to 2020. To transport the explosive Internet traffic, a corresponding bandwidth growth in long-haul and metro optical fiber networks will have to happen at the same time. Consequently, optical fibers in service providers’ networks have been quickly exhausted. In order to slow down the consumption rate of precious optical fiber trunk lines, service providers are in urgent need of more bandwidth-efficient transmission systems.